Supervision is an intervention provided by a more senior member of a profession to a more junior member or members of that same profession. The relationship is evaluative, extends over time, and has the simultaneous purposes of enhancing the professional functioning of the more junior person(s), monitoring the quality of professional services offered to the clients that she, he, or they see, and serving as a gatekeeper for those who are to enter the particular profession. (page 8) Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear, R. K. (2004) Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision (3rd ed). Boston: Pearson and Allyn and Bacon.
The primary supervisor must be a licensed psychologist who has oversight for the clinical work performed by practicum students, in accordance with the Ohio Administrative Code. Students are required to receive a minimum of 10% of their hours in supervision with at least one hour of regularly scheduled face-to-face, individual supervision per week. For example, a student is assigned to a practicum for 16 hours per week, s/he must receive, on average, 1.6 hours per week of face-to-face supervision. Of those 1.6 hours per week, one hour must be individual supervision with a primary supervisor who is a licensed psychologist. The remaining 0.6 hours can be provided by a licensed psychologist or allied mental health professional in an individual or group format, or by an umbrella supervisor in an individual format. If the student is placed on practicum for 20 hours per week, s/he must receive, on average, 2 hours per week of face-to-face supervision. Of those 2 hours per week, one hour must be individual supervision with a primary supervisor who is a licensed psychologist. The remaining hour can be provided by a licensed psychologist or allied mental health professional in an individual or group format, or umbrella supervisor in an individual format.
The amount of supervision noted above is the minimum required. Supplemental individual or group supervision in excess of the minimum ratio required is encouraged.
Supervisors may use methods and styles suited for the context of their organizational setting, clinical populations, psychological orientation, and accepted standards of supervisory practice in the field of clinical psychology. The regular use of audio or video taping or live observation of student work should be an integral part of practicum supervision. It is expected that each semester's supervisory evaluation will include data from at least one of these supervisory methods in addition to the student's verbal report.
The clinical supervisor should also coordinate any consultation from other clinical personnel required by the unique needs of a client or due to special training needs which the supervisor cannot provide. Consultation enables greater richness in training for a student and allows for exposure to areas where the clinical consultant has greater depth of expertise or experience than does the clinical supervisor. Consultation is by definition time limited. Clinical responsibility for the case always remains with the general supervisor.
The responsible use of secure technologies such as telephone, internet, or web-based video is allowable as a supplemental training and consultation aid and for supervision in excess of the minimum ratio required, although it may not replace the minimum weekly face-to-face individual supervision requirement.